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A hard fork (or hardfork), as it relates to blockchain technology, is a radical change to a network’s protocol that makes previously invalid blocks and transactions valid, or vice-versa. A hard fork requires all nodes or users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software.

Forks may be initiated by developers or members of a crypto community who grow dissatisfied with functionalities offered by existing blockchain implementations. They may also emerge as a way to crowdsource funding for new technology projects or cryptocurrency offerings.

A hard fork can be contrasted with a soft fork.

Understanding a Hard Fork

A hard fork is when nodes of the newest version of a blockchain no longer accept the older version(s) of the blockchain; which creates a permanent divergence from the previous version of the blockchain.

Adding a new rule to the code essentially creates a fork in the blockchain: one path follows the new, upgraded blockchain, and the other path continues along the old path. Generally, after a short time, those on the old chain will realize that their version of the blockchain is outdated or irrelevant and quickly upgrade to the latest version.

How Forks Work

A fork in a blockchain can occur in any crypto-technology platform—not only Bitcoin. That is because blockchains and cryptocurrency work in basically the same way no matter which crypto platform they’re on. You may think of the blocks in blockchains as cryptographic keys that move memory. Because the miners in a blockchain set the rules that move the memory in the network, these miners understand the new rules.

However, all of the miners need to agree about the new rules and about what comprises a valid block in the chain. So when you want to change those rules you need to “fork it”—like a fork in a road—to indicate that there’s been a change in or a diversion to the protocol. The developers can then update all of the software to reflect the new rules.

It is through this forking process that various digital currencies with names similar to bitcoin have come to be: bitcoin cash, bitcoin gold, and others. For the casual cryptocurrency investor, it can be difficult to tell the difference between these cryptocurrencies and to map the various forks onto a timeline. To help sort this out, we have composed a history of the most important bitcoin hard forks of the past several years. 

Source: Investopedia

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